PHONEMES (in IPA)
y, ɪ, ø, e, a, ɔ, ʊ, ɹɹ (syllabic), p, b, f, v, m, ɹ, t, d, θ, ð, n, l, ʧ, ʤ, s, z, ɲ, j, g, ʃ, ʒ, ŋ, k, h
Front-rounded vowels retain their roundness in a root when occurring alone or with /y/, /ø/ or /u/. In other cases they lose their rounding. Examples: /byʤ/ "-ceive/cept", /ʒilɹɹ/ "city", /nøfy/ "year", /esa/ "stone".
Front-rounded vowels retain their roundness in words made up of multiple morphemes regardless of individual stems. Examples: /emɹɹjø/ "to war", /esaʃøn/ "onto the stone".
There is no grammatical gender.
1s: /srr/ 1p: /jub/
2s: /ɲøs/ 2p: /mø/
3s: /kuð/ 3p: /oʤil/
These decline as other nouns do; see below.
These can take interrogative markers at the beginning, and/or a distance marker, at the beginning following an interrogative marker.
interrogative marker: /ød/
distance marker: /ʒo/
There are no articles, but /ɲom/ is often used somewhat like an indefinite article.
Roots can end with a consonant or a vowel. A root serves as a noun, and a root with a vowel added at the end forms a verb infinitive.
The verb suffix vowel is added according to the following rules:
To a root ending in a consonant, the tonic vowel is added. Exception: when /ɹɹ/ is tonic, /i/ is added. Examples: /foʤ/ "drain(age)" > /foʤo/ "to drain", /ðɹɹʒ/ "whistle" > / ðɹɹʒi/ "to whistle".
To a root ending in /ɹɹ/ or syllabic /l/, the final liquid becomes non-syllabic and the tonic vowel is added. To a root ending in /y/-/i/, the /i/ becomes a /j/ and the tonic vowel is added, or /ø/ if /rr/ is tonic. In a multisyllabic root ending in /u/, the /u/ is replaced by /ʒ/ (which becomes /ʤ/ when following /d/ or /g/) and the tonic vowel is added at the end. Exceptions are treated below. Examples: /imɹɹ/ "shake" > /imɹy/ "to shake", /ʃafi/ "cut" > /ʃafja/ "to cut", /hɹɹi/ "hurt/damage" > /hɹɹjø/ "to hurt/damage", /ɹɹʤl/ "heat" > /ɹɹʤli/ "to heat ("to be hot" is phrased "to have heat" for an object and "to heat" for weather), /jagu/ "light" > /jaʤa/ "to light/illuminate".*
To a root ending in a vowel, verb suffixes (usually transitive) are assigned thus:
Tonic vowel (not the final unless the only) Suffix
/y/-/ i/, /ɹɹ/ /hø/
Examples: /ʧu/ "breath" > /ʧuhy/ "to breathe", /ja/ "crack" > /jaho/ "to crack", /vy/ "bend" > /vyhø/ "to bend", /peda/ "waking" > /pedaha/ "to wake".
In many dialects the /h/ in the verb suffix is not pronounced or has become a /j/: /pedaja/ "to wake".
As a rule, infinitives formed in this way from a root ending in a vowel are transitive, and many of them have no intransitive form. Examples: /uʤo/ "kick" > / uʤohy/ "to kick", /la/ "mark" > /laho/ "to mark". Many verbs formed from a root ending in de-syllabicizing sounds are also transitive. See examples above. Roots ending in consonants forming intransitive verbs need affixes to form transitive verbs.
There are many roots ending in vowels that are never made into verbs. Examples: /hasa/ "daughter", /myhy/ "body", /moɲo/ "bone", /po/ "egg". Also, roots used only as prepositions often end in vowels. Examples: /ɹɹke/ "after", /jy/ "beside".
Other roots for concrete objects that are less commonly made into verbs also often end in vowels. Examples: /vɹɹʧi/ "fire", /vøpu/ "branch". These are not used as verbs in standard speech but are common in colloquial dialects, particularly among the aupsha subculture.
Some roots (notably colors) have two variants ending in different vowels. One produces an intransitive verb/adjective (and/or passive verb), the other a transitive (and/or dynamic) verb. Examples: /jagu/ "light" > /jaga/ "to shine", /jaʤa/ "to light/illuminate",  /una/ "death" > /unu/ "to be dead", /unahy/ "to die".
/mapu/ "red", /mapa/ "to be red", /mapuho/ "to make red".
/poska/ "yellow/gold", /posko/ "to be yellow", /poskahu/ "to make yellow".
/nɹɹka/ "green", /nɹɹki/ "to be green", /nɹɹkahø/ "to make green".
/haɹu/ "blue", /haɹa/ "to be blue", /haɹuho/ "to make blue".
/siɹo/ "black", /syɹy/ "to be black", /siɹohø/ "to blacken".
/ɲola/ "white", /ɲolo/ "to be white", /ɲolahu/ "to whiten".
The noun roots are used in compound words and personal or place names, often with any final vowel dropped: /siɹlo/ "blackrock" (lava), /mapaŋz/ "red-earth", /iʃað/ "law-rule", /ʧon/ "cougar", /leʧnut/ "school".
Verbs are conjugated with the morphemes joined in the following order:
The default mood is indicative, the default tense present, and the default number singular. Therefore an indicative present tense singular verb will have no morphemes in any of these slots and will be shorter than, for example, an imperative future plural verb: /foʤoaŋ/ "I drain/ am draining" (the beans), /foʤolrrvøkstrul/ "You all drain (the beans when they've finished soaking).
For a past participle, only the perfective marker is added, plus the plural if appropriate: /foʤovøkl . . . / "drained" (beans).
Past participles and verbs can serve as adjectives, and in this role they immediately follow the noun they modify. When used as predicates then they precede the subject noun: /aka ɲrrθjøny/ "poisonous leaf", /ɲrrθjøny aka/ "the leaf is poisonous."
When past participles and verbs serve as adjectives, they receive declensions as nouns do. In such cases the entire verb is treated as a stem (with the plural added only as part of the noun declension): /ðyr . . . foʤovøkafl/ "water from the drained (beans), see below.
Perfective marker: /vøk/
Future: /st/, /sut/
Plural marker: /l/
The plural marker is used for verbs (including verbs acting as adjectives) and nouns.
Augmentative marker: /krrm/
Diminuitive marker: /os/
Accusative: /t/ /ylyaŋ ɲøst srr/ "I see you."
Adessive: /mʃ/, /myʃ/
Elative: /nʃ/, /nyʃ/
Case markers may also be applied to roots to form verb stems:
The word order for declarative sentences is:
Verb Direct Object Indirect Object Subject Postposition
For interrogative sentences:
Subject Verb Direct Object Indirect Object Postposition
 Compare Fússagh /ʒeg/ "light" > /ʒege/ "to shine", /ʒegu/ "to light"; /sir/ "black", /siɹi/ "to be black", /siɹa/ "to blacken".
 This similarity to Kashkese grammar, which systematically renders static and dynamic verbs by root inflection, has been noted by Thussaf scholars and used by some to argue for the factuality of Thussic myths which tell of a trans-oceanic migration of the Thussic ancestors. However it should be noted that there are no discernible cognate sets between Kashkese and Thussic morphemes.